Law

Law Education

Scope of law as a career is immense in India as opportunities expand in corporate houses, law firms, law agencies, administrative services, and the likes. These days, law graduates not only get dressed in black and white apparels to represent court but also make their presence felt with groundbreaking cases and legal reforms to make a difference. If you look at the history of law in India, it has seen some revolutionary changes before and after the Constitution was born. The Bar Council of India (BCI) was established to regulate and manage Legal education and profession in India.

To make a career in law, aspirants can study five-year integrated LLB courses at Undergraduate level such as BA LLB, BBA LLB, BLS-LLB, BSc LLB or BCom LLB.
If candidates have already completed their graduation in other stream, and now they wish to make a career in law, then they pursue a three year LLB course.
For those who want to make a career as Legal Researcher by studying law further, India law colleges also offer two-year or one-year master’s degree in law (LLM) followed by a doctoral degree (PhD).

Manjor streme

The Bachelor of Arts – Bachelor of Legislative Law (BA LLB) course is an integrated law degree that the law aspirants can pursue right after qualifying their Class 12th examinations. The law degree is an integration of Arts and Law subjects and is of five-years duration. Therefore, as part of the BA LLB course, the candidates study subjects including Economics, History, Political Science, Sociology along with law subjects like Civil Law, Criminal Law, Labour Law, Tax Law, Administrative Law, Corporate Law, Patent Law etc. The course-curriculum of BA LLB degree is such that law, as well as, the arts subjects, are included in each semester. Moreover, candidates are taught about law case studies, moot courts, law internships, seminars and interactions with retired judges from High courts and the Supreme Court of India.

 Eligibility Criteria

Candidates seeking admission to BA LLB course need to meet the eligibility criteria as mentioned by the law schools and universities in India including, academic qualification, minimum qualifying marks and age limit.  if they have completed their 10+2 from a recognised board. Apart from this, most popular law colleges also fix a minimum marks requirement in order to be eligible to apply for the BA LLB course offered by them. By means of this criteria, candidates belonging to General/ OBC/ Specially abled person categories need to secure at least 45% marks at their 10+2 level in order to pursue a BA LLB course and the percentage fixed for SC/ ST category is 40%. The Bar Council of India (BCI) states no minimum or maximum age limit criteria is required for admissions to BA LLB course or five-year integrated law courses. After completing an integrated BA LLB course, candidates are offered many job opportunities.

Some popular job profiles that candidates can pursue after securing a BA LLB degree are as mentioned below:

Job Profile Job Description
Lawyer In this job profile, one needs to advise and represent clients in civil as well as criminal cases. Lawyers present cases in the court of law and take part in all proceedings and hearings.
Solicitor In such a job profile an individual usually specialises in a specific area of law like tax, litigation, family or property. Solicitors offer legal advice to private as well as commercial clients.
Advocate In such a job profile one needs to do a lot of research work to gather factual data as well as physical evidence to support their claim. Apart from this, other responsibilities allocated to advocates include scrutinising and drafting contracts.
Legal Advisor Candidates opting to work in such a job profile are also lawyers who specialise in a specific field of law. Legal advisors are usually hired by governments as well as large organisations/ companies. The main task of a legal advisor is to protect their clients from any legal implication or consequence.
Teacher or Lecturer After completing an LLB degree candidates can also teach law at the college or university level.
B.Com. LL.B. or Bachelor of Commerce and Bachelor of Legislative Law is an undergraduate Administrative Law professional integrated course. The course is a combination of the study of Law and Commerce. Law is a set of categorized rules and regulations under which any society or country is governed. Commerce means trading (sales and purchases) of goods and services between two Countries, regions, people etc. B.Com. LL.B.  is a five Years course with ten semesters. The maximum duration to clear the course is a period of eight years from the date of admission to the First Semester Course. It is called an Integrated Course because its course curriculum involves the study of Commerce along with the in-depth study of law and legislature. It is also referred as B.Com., LL.B.  The medium of instruction is English unless specified. It is a specialized Law Course which is offered by only a few select institutes.

B.Com. LL.B. Eligibility

  • The basic eligibility criteria for pursuing a B.Com. LL.B.  Course is passing in the Higher Secondary School Examination (10+2) system; candidates with Commerce will be given preference over other candidates. Aggregate marks should not be less than 50% of the total marks or an equivalent examination such as 11+1, ‘A’ level in Senior School Leaving certificate course) from a recognized University of India or outside or from a Senior Secondary Board or equivalent, constituted or recognized by the Union or by a State Government or from any equivalent institution from a foreign country recognized by the government of that country. These regulations can be varied but are mostly similar in almost all institutes.
  • Applicants who have obtained + 2 Higher Secondary Pass Certificate or First-Degree Certificate after prosecuting studies in distance or correspondence method shall also be considered as eligible for admission.
  • Admission to the First Year of the 5-Year B.Com. LL.B. Degree Program is made strictly on merit, based on the Entrance Examination. An interview may be conducted as well.
  • National-level Common Law Admission Test (CLAT)/State Level Law Entrance test scores are accepted, they provide extra weight-age in some institutes, while in others, these are not mandatory.
  • The maximum age for seeking admission into a stream of integrated Bachelor of law degree program is limited to 20 (twenty) years in case of general category of applicants and to 22 (twenty-two) years in case of applicants from SC, ST and other Backward communities.
  • Most of the institutes reserve a certain number of seats for foreign candidates.
  • Certain numbers of seats are also reserved for Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes, along with reservation for Persons with Disability.
  • As per stipulation of the Bar Council of India the minimum percentage of marks not below 45% of the total marks in case of general category applicants and 40% of the total marks in case of SC, ST and OBC applicants, to be obtained in the qualifying examination, such as +2 Examination.
  • Candidates awaiting results of the qualifying examination can also appear for the test on condition that they produce proof of having passed the qualifying examination with the prescribed marks at the time of interview.
As per MITS Ordinance, the internal evaluation method is followed which includes viz., announced and unannounced class tests, assignments, presentations, case studies, class participation, projects, dissertations, mid-term and end-term examinations. Regulations regarding B.Com., LL.B. Course Internship Each registered student shall have to complete minimum 20 weeks internship during the 5-year course under the following institutions/organizations-
  • NGO
  • Trial and Appellate Advocates
  • Judiciary
  • Legal Regulatory authority
  • Legislatures and Parliament
  • Market Institutions
  • Law Firms
  • Companies
BBA LLB (Hons) – Full Form (Bachelor of Business Administration & Bachelor of Legislative Law (Hons)) course is an integrated course and on completion of this course, aspirants are awarded a professional degree. The duration of a BBA LLB (Hons) course is five years. The maximum duration within which students need to complete their BBA LLB (Hons) course is eight years. As part of an integrated BBA LLB (Hons) course, candidates have imparted education through various methods such as classroom teaching, case studies and moot courts. As part of a BBA LLB (Hons), course aspirants are taught Business Administration/ Management as well as law subjects. The primary difference between a BBA LLB and a BBA LLB (Hons) course is that in a BBA LLB (Hons) course aspirants have to study more subjects and conduct more research. Thus, as shared by the Bar Council of India (BCI) a candidate who pursues a BBA LLB (Hons) course would have to take not less than “36 papers in all, which shall include 18 compulsory papers, 22 Bar Council of India four clinical papers, six optional papers and eight papers in specialized/ honours course in any Group”. However, in a BBA LLB course candidates need to give a minimum of 28 law papers. As part of a BBA LLB (Hons) course, the BCI informs that Compulsory and Optional subjects/papers may be taken from the following papers/ subjects such as Business Communication, Human Resource Management, Quantitative Analysis, Business Mathematics, Business Statistics, Accounts and Finance, Business Environment, Management Theory and Practice, and Marketing Management. Language policy shall remain the same. However, one can take English as a major or minor subject, where there is a system of major and minor, with other management subjects.

BBA LLB (Hons.) Eligibility Criteria

Aspirants meet the eligibility criteria for BBA LLB (Hons) course if they have completed their Class 12 (in 10+2 format) from a recognised board with passing marks. Many law colleges/ institutes/ universities also state that candidates are eligible to apply for a BBA LLB (Hons) course if they have secured minimum 45% to 50% marks at their Class 12 level if they belong to General category and for SC/ ST category candidates the range of this minimum marks percentage is fixed between 40% to 45% (the minimum percentage eligibility criteria varies from college to college) There is no age limit criteria that candidates need to fulfil in order to apply for BBA LLB (Hons) course admissions.

Top Law Entrance Exams in India for BBA LLB (Hons.)

Admission in BBA LLB (Hons) course offered by most of the popular law colleges/ universities in India is through an entrance exam. Generally, an entrance exam conducted for BBA LLB (Hons) admissions is of two to three hours duration. Common subjects from which questions are asked in BBA LLB (Hons) entrance exams are – General Knowledge, English, Mathematics (Numerical Ability), Logical Reasoning and Legal Aptitude. Candidates can go through some popular law entrance exams for BBA LLB (Hons) course admissions below:
CLAT LSAT India
ULSAT MHCET Law
TSLAWCET ILSAT
APLAWCET HP-NLET
      Aspirants can go through the list of other popular law entrance exams here.

BBA LLB (Hons.) Jobs and Recruiters

There are many job opportunities available to candidates after completing a BBA LLB (Hons) course. Some popular job profiles that candidates can join after securing a BBA LLB (Hons) degree are mentioned below:

Job Profile Job Description
Lawyer In this job profile, one needs to advise and represent clients in civil as well as criminal cases. Lawyers present cases in the court of law and take part in all proceedings and hearings.
Solicitor In such a job profile an individual usually specialises in a specific area of law like tax, litigation, family or property. Solicitors offer legal advice to private as well as commercial clients.
Advocate In such a job profile one needs to do a lot of research work to gather factual data as well as physical evidence to support their claim. Apart from this, other responsibilities allocated to advocates include scrutinising and drafting contracts.
Legal Advisor Candidates opting to work in such a job profile are also lawyers who specialise in a specific field of law. Legal advisors are usually hired by governments as well as large organisations/ companies. The main task of a legal advisor is to protect their clients from any legal implication or consequence.
Teacher or Lecturer After completing an LLB degree candidates can also teach law at the college or university level.

BBA LLB (Hons.) Top Recruiters

The top legal firms that are known to hire law graduates are listed below:

BBA LLB (Hons) Top Recruiters
Amarchand & Mangaldas & Suresh A Shroff & Co. AZB & Partners
Khaitan & CO J Sagar Associates
Luthra & Luthra Law Offices Trilegal
S&R Associates Economic Laws Practice
Desai & Diwanji Talwar Thakore & Associates
High Courts District Courts
Legum Baccalaureus or LLB is a three-year Bachelor of Law degree that is offered to aspirants by many renowned colleges in India. However, candidates can pursue this law course only if they possess a graduation degree. The three-year LLB course offered at all law colleges of India is regulated and closely supervised by the Bar Council of India (BCI). The three-year law course is structured in such a way that the curriculum is divided into six semesters. Candidates are awarded the degree only when they complete all the semesters of this three-year LLB course. As part of an LLB degree offered at most popular law colleges in India, candidates need to take part in regular theory classes, moot courts, internships as well as tutorial work.

Three-year LLB Eligibility Criteria

Candidates who want to pursue the LLB course should fulfil certain requirements in order to be eligible. Below are the eligibility criteria for  three-year LLB courses as mentioned by BCI:
  • Candidates need to be graduates i.e. they should have passed a bachelor degree of three-years or four-years duration in any subject/ discipline in order to pursue an LLB course.
  • Apart from this, some colleges also fix a minimum percentage requirement that candidates need to fulfil in order to secure admission in the three-year LLB course offered by them. The (minimum) percentage requirement for General category candidates ranges from 45% to 55% and that for SC/ST category candidates it ranges between 35% to 45%.

Three-year LLB Jobs and Career Opportunities

There are a plethora of job opportunities available to candidates after they complete an LLB degree. Candidates are informed that if they want to practice law in India then they need to clear All India Bar Exam (AIBE) that is conducted by BCI. On clearing, AIBE exam lawyers are awarded a ‘Certificate of Practice’ which is mandatory for practicing the profession as an advocate in India. Some popular job profiles that candidates can pursue after securing an LLB degree are as mentioned below:
  • Lawyer: In this job profile, one needs to advise and represent clients in civil as well as criminal cases. Lawyers present cases in the court of law and take part in all proceedings and hearings.
  • Legal Advisor: Candidates opting to work in such a job profile are also lawyers who specialise in a specific field of law. Legal advisors are usually hired by governments as well as large organisations/ companies. The main task of a legal advisor is to protect their clients from any legal implication or consequence.
  • Advocate: In such a job profile one needs to do a lot of research work to gather factual data as well as physical evidence to support their claim. Apart from this, other responsibilities allocated to advocates include scrutinising and drafting contracts.
  • Solicitor: In such a job profile an individual usually specialises in a specific area of law like tax, litigation, family or property. Solicitors offer legal advice to private as well as commercial clients.
  • Teacher or Lecturer: After completing an LLB degree candidates can also teach law at the college or university level.

LLB Top Recruiters

The top legal firms that are known to hire law graduates are listed below:
  1. Amarchand & Mangaldas & Suresh A Shroff & Co.
  2. AZB & Partners
  3. Khaitan & CO
  4. J Sagar Associates
  5. Luthra & Luthra Law Offices
  6. Trilegal
  7. S&R Associates
  8. Economic Laws Practice
  9. Desai & Diwanji
  10. Talwar Thakore & Associates

Frequently Asked Questions for LLB Course

Q: What is the LLB course? 
The LLB degree is a three-years duration course that candidates can pursue after their graduation degree. The LLB course is different from the five-year integrated LLB courses such as BA LLB, BBA LLB, BSc LLB, BCom LLB etc.
Q: What are the admission requirements of LLB course? 
Every law school or university offering an LLB degree follows the eligibility criteria prescribed by BCI. Candidates seeking admission to an LLB course must hold a bachelor degree of three-years or four-years duration from a recognised university. Check the complete eligibility criteria for LLB courses mentioned above on this page.
Q: Is mathematics compulsory for LLB course? 
As per the eligibility criteria of the LLB course, the candidates holding a bachelor degree in any discipline can pursue the course. No such requirement of Mathematics as a mandatory subject for admission to an LLB course.
Q: Do I need to appear for CLAT for admission to LLB degree? 
 CLAT exam is conducted only for admissions to five-years LLB courses and LLM course. For admission to an LLB degree, candidates have to appear for the entrance exam conducted by the university/ law colleges.
Q: What is the minimum percentage required for admission to an LLB degree? 
Candidates should have secured at least 55-50% marks in their bachelor degree for admission to the LLB degree. However, every law school/ university in India provides relaxation of 5% marks to Scheduled Caste or Scheduled Tribe candidates.
Q: Which degree is better LLB or BA LLB? 
The BA LLB can be pursued right after Class 12th, however, for admission to an LLB degree, candidates should hold a bachelor degree. Both the degrees are valued for their own curriculum. An LLB degree has all the law subjects, whereas, BA  LLB degree, as the name suggests, includes Arts subjects along with law subjects.
Q: What is the difference between a BA LLB/ BCom LLB/ BBA LLB degree and LLB degree?
The only difference between an LLB and a BA LLB/ BCom LLB/ BBA LLB degree is of the duration of courses i.e. BA LLB is of five-years duration and an LLB degree is of three-years duration but candidates already would have completed a bachelor degree of three years which makes it –  3+3 = 6 years.
Q: Can I pursue law after completing LLB degree? 
Candidates completing their LLB degree have to appear for the All India Bar Examination (AIBE) by BCI. The clear the bar examination is mandatory for all law graduates to be able to practice law. All state bar councils in India have made it mandatory for advocates graduated after 2010 to clear this examination.
Q: What is the syllabus for LLB degree? 
The subjects in LLB degree are criminal law, IPR, labour and work laws, family law, criminal law, the law of torts, consumer protection act, constitutional law, law of evidence, human rights, international law, trade laws, environmental law etc. Check the complete syllabus for LLB degree as mentioned above on this page.
the law course is divided into four semesters. In Master of Law, course aspirants gain in-depth knowledge of a specific field of law by intensive research in that particular area of Law. In the LLM course, candidates need to select the law specialisation in which they want to make their future. Thus, candidates can pursue their LLM degree in specialisations such as – Civil LawTax LawCriminal LawCorporate LawCommercial Law, International Law, Labour LawReal Estate Law, Patent Law, Competition LawIntellectual Property Law, Mergers and Acquisition Law, Tax LawAdministrative LawBanking LawBusiness LawCompany LawConstitutional LawConsumer LawContract LawCyber LawEducation LawEnergy LawEntertainment & Media LawEnvironment LawFamily LawHealthcare LawTelecommunications Law etc.

Eligibility Criteria for LLM Course

Candidates are eligible to apply for admission in an LLM course if they have completed their graduation in law, that is, if the aspirant has secured his/ her LLB/ Bachelor of Law/ Five Year Integrated LLM course from a recognised university/ college.
  • Apart from this, some colleges also fix a minimum percentage requirement for the LLM course offered by them.
  • As part of the eligibility criteria shared by such colleges, candidates need secure at least 55% aggregate marks at the graduation level in order to be eligible to secure admission in LLM course offered by them.

LLM Jobs and Career Opportunities

After pursuing an LLM course, candidates can opt for further studies wherein they pursue either MPhil or PhD in Law. However, if candidates want to pursue a career in the field of law then he/ she can go through the below-mentioned job profiles. Aspirants are informed that in order to practice law in India they need to clear the All India Bar Exam (AIBE). Advocate: In such a job profile one needs to do a lot of research work to gather factual data as well as physical evidence to support their claim. Apart from this, other responsibilities allocated to advocates include scrutinising and drafting contracts. Solicitor: In such a job profile an individual usually specialises in a specific area of law like tax, litigation, family or property. Solicitors offer legal advice to private as well as commercial clients. Judge: In such a job profile one has to ensure that justice is administered and legal rights of all the involved parties are safeguarded. A judge presides over trials/ hearings wherein they listen to the case presented by lawyers. Legal Advisor: Candidates opting to work in such a job profile are also lawyers who specialise in a specific field of law. Legal advisors are usually hired by governments as well as large organisations/ companies. The main task of a legal advisor is to protect their clients from any legal implication or consequence. Notary Public: Individuals are hired in such a job profile by the central government for the whole or specific part of the country. Any person who has been practicing law (as a lawyer) for a minimum ten years is eligible to apply for a notary post. The tasks performed by a Notary are as follows:
  • To verify, authenticate, certify or attest the execution of any instrument.
  • To translate and verify the translation, of any document from one language into another.
  • To administer an oath to or take an affidavit from any person.
  • To act as commissioner, to record evidence in any civil or criminal trial if so directed by the court or authority.
  • To act as arbitrator, mediator, or conciliator if so required.
Oath Commissioners: In such a job profile one is authorised to verify affidavits. An Oath Commissioner is appointed by the Chief Justice and is usually a solicitor. But this is not always the case. The tasks performed by an Oath Commissioner are as follows:
  • Ensuring the evidence is in written form (the draft affidavit).
  • Enquire that the person before him/ her has read the draft affidavit and fully understands the contents.
  • Make a person swear that the affidavit is true by raising the appropriate Testament in the right hand and repeating the words of the oath.
  • Verify that the affidavit was properly sworn by completing a “jurat” on the affidavit.

Frequently Asked Question for LLM Course

Q: What does LLM stand for?
The degree by the full form in India refers to as Master of Laws and in Latin, refers Legum Magister.
Q: Is LLM compulsory degree to pursue law as a profession?
While in India, one who has completed an LLB degree either three-years duration after graduation or five-years duration after class 12th makes them eligible enough to pursue law as a profession. An LLM degree is pursued by those who want to learn more in a specialisation. However, in both cases, they have to appear for AIBE conducted by BCI to be able to get ‘Certificate of Practice’.
Q: Can I study LLM course without an LLB degree? 
No, as per the eligibility criteria of LLM degree (BCI regulations for legal education in India), candidates should hold either a five-year integrated LLB degree or three-years LLB degree from a recognised law college or university.
Q: What is the duration of LLM course?
Many law colleges in India offer LLM course as a one-year or two-year course. However, generally, the law degree is offered as a two-years duration.
Q: How to take admission in a National Law University (NLU) for LLM course?
For admission to LLM course offered at NLUs in India, candidates have to appear for CLAT exam and meet the cut-off marks criteria for admission to 22 NLUs in India. However, for admission to NLU Delhi, candidates have to appear and qualify AILET exam.
Q: Is an LLM degree offered through distance education mode?
No, LLM degree cannot be pursued in distance mode or online mode. However, listed below are some law courses offered by NLSIU Bangalore that candidates can study in distance education mode:

The PhD, also known as the Doctor of Philosophy degree, is one of the most coveted achievements in the academic world. In most countries, the PhD is not necessarily a degree in the area of philosophy, and students can be awarded the Doctor of Philosophy in a wide variety of academic fields. The title of “doctor” is often given to individuals with a PhD.

PhD programs are the highest academic degrees awarded by universities in the United States. Most students complete the degree in five or six years. To obtain a PhD, most programs require extensive coursework and some form of intellectual activity outside of the traditional classroom. For many programs, this includes extensive research and the completion of a dissertation. Most programs require that students study under the careful supervision of a faculty advisor, which is one way for students to become familiar with research topics and methodology.

Due to the mentor system, admission to PhD programs is highly competitive. Applicants are often competing against hundreds of other prospective students for a handful of positions. Some programs accept students with a relevant undergraduate degree, but some PhD programs require the completion of a Master’s degree prior to admission.

The early years of the PhD program are dedicated to expanding the student’s knowledge of the academic field. Depending on the specific program, students are required to complete exams or a thesis at the end of the second or third year. During the first three years, students are also required to submit a thesis proposal and form a working relationship with a faculty mentor. After the third year, students are expected to dedicate a significant amount of time to the dissertation, so fewer traditional courses are required. Before the PhD can be conferred, candidates must defend their dissertations.

Individuals with a PhD from an accredited university can select a career in research, academia, or a specialized field.

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