The standard entry-to-practice degree in modern evidence-based medicine in India is the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS). Alternative systems of Medicine in India are Ayurveda (BAMS), Unani (BUMS), Siddha(BSMS), Homeopathy (BHMS). M.B.B.S. ( Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery) a credential earned upon completion of a five-and-a-half-year undergraduate program.
The curriculum is divided into one year of preclinical studies in general science subjects and three and a half years of paraclinical and clinical studies, followed by a one-year clinical internship.
Before beginning the internship, students are required to pass several examinations, the final one of which is conducted in two parts. Postgraduate education in medical specialties typically takes 3 additional years of study after the MBBS and concludes with the award of a Master of Surgery or Doctor of Medicine(MD). Postgraduate diplomas in medical specialities may also be awarded upon the completion of two-year training programs.
What is MBBS?
An MBBS degree is an undergraduate course for aspirants who want to fulfil their dream of becoming a doctor. Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS), is a professional degree in medical science. A person holding the MBBS degree becomes a certified medical practitioner. The duration of MBBS course is five years and six months including one year of rotational internship at hospitals, health centres, and health camps organised by non-profit organisations (NGOs). MBBS course syllabus includes studies on anatomy, pharmacology, pathology as well as community health & medicine, paediatrics, and surgery. The syllabus, prescribed in such a way that MBBS degree holders can choose a specialisation for further majoring and practising medicine. The career specialisations for MBBS students are Nephrology, Cardiology, Gynecology, Anesthesiology, Organ Transplant, Endocrine, and General Surgery, etc.
What are the career options after MBBS?
During one year of the MBBS internship, students can work with hospitals and healthcare centres as consultants, physicians, medical assistants in critical care units, among others. They can also work in health campaigns by the government and help the public with awareness about diseases, medicines, health and fitness through conferences.
On completion of the MBBS internship, the students can get themselves registered as doctors with the Medical Council of India (MCI). They can either apply for a post-graduate degree in medical science i.e. MD/MS or continue working in the health sector as qualified doctors.
While pursuing further education in medical science, an MBBS-degree holder can also associate with pharmaceuticals as research associates. Moreover, the option for taking Combined Medical Services Examination is always open for an MBBS graduate. They can be employed with the central government organisations, including hospitals, defence sector, railways, and with the local/state government
What are the required skills for MBBS?
Every medical and health sciences practitioner must have the required skills:
|Ability to work in a critical and dynamic environment||Professional commitments and medical ethics|
|Desire for knowledge and learning new research||Scientific research and development skills|
|Sharp memory and prompt approach||Communication interpersonal skills|
|Counselling and caring skills||Approachable and empathetic skills|
|Medical writing skills||Patience and perseverance|
Eligibility for MBBS Degree
- Candidates must have passed Class XII/higher secondary/pre-university qualifying examination with Science subjects i.e. Physics, Chemistry and Zoology/Botany. They also must have studied English as the main subject for their qualifying examination.
- Moreover, candidates also need to fulfil the age limit criteria i.e. they must have completed 17 years of age at the time of admissions.
- There are additional eligibility conditions as mentioned by the regulatory authorities for MBBS i.e. Medical Council of India (MCI).
In MBBS course curriculum, aspiring doctors not only learn about everything in and around medical and healthcare industry, but they also learn the ethical practices, get to intern with hospitals and volunteering projects. Check table below for subjects in MBBS course
MBBS Entrance Exams
For admission to MBBS course in India, a student needs to appear for the National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET). This is the only entrance test for admission to MBBS course and is accepted by both government and private institutions.
Two other major entrance tests for admission to MBBS course in India were JIPMER MBBS Exam and AIIMS MBBS Exam. However, these examinations were scrapped in 2019 making NEET the most important medical entrance test in India
What is BDS (Bachelor of Dental Surgery)BDS (Bachelor of Dental Surgery) is the only professional programme on dental surgery in India. BDS is one of the most sought after course after MBBS. Students while aspiring for a medical career at the high school level and beyond look for information that tells them all about BDS. The course is 4 years in duration followed by one year of paid rotating internship. In India, BDS is regulated by the Dental Council of India where all dentists have to register to be able to practice after the completion of their study. The National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET) is the national level exam to apply for BDS admissions. A total of 26,000 seats are available as per the Dental Council of India records across 315 colleges inclusive of Govt, private colleges as well as central and deemed universities. In this course, the students are taught about the denture, dental problems and surgery. It is also a good job oriented degree programmes and various opportunities are available in the hospital, pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturing industries. The BDS degree is awarded on the successful completion of the four-year academic education. The one-year mandatory internship programme in dentistry education leading to the Bachelor of Dental Surgery degree programme. After completing your BDS, you are qualified to practice as a dentist.
BDS Admission Process
BDS Admission takes place through NEET exam. It has been made compulsory from 2016 onwards for successful admission into MBBS, BDS and other medical courses.
BDS Course Eligibility
Students should have secured at least 50% in their Class XII with Physics, Chemistry and Biology as compulsory subjects.
BDS Entrance exams
There are not many BDS entrance exams, as admission is usually done on the basis of NEET result. Apart from this, Rama University takes admission in BDS course through the RUET exam.
BDS Course Highlights
|Full Form||Bachelor of Dental Surgery|
|Duration||5 years (4 years with 1 year of paid internship/training)|
|Eligibility||Class XII with minimum 50% with Physics, Chemistry, Biology|
|Admission Process||Through NEET|
|Course Fee||INR 1 to 6 Lakhs Per Annum|
|Average Starting Salary||INR 3-4 LPA|
|Recruiting Sectors||Hospitals, Dental Clinics, Dental Research Institutes, etc.|
|Common Job Positions||Dentist, Lecturer, Tutor, Dental Research Scientist, etc.|
Why pursue BDS course?
Eligibility Criteria for BAMS
- To pursue BAMS course in Indian colleges/ universities, aspirants should clear Class XII in Science stream with PCB (Physics, Chemistry, Biology) subjects.
- In most cases, the minimum percentage that students require in Class XII to be eligible for BAMS course admissions is 50% to 60%. However, the minimum percentage criteria changes depending on a college/ university policy.
- Some universities may also have minimum age bar as their BAMS eligibility criteria.
Job Profile and Top Recruiters for BAMS In the past, there were majorly two options available for freshly graduated Ayurveda doctors – higher studies or personal practice by opening a clinic. However, these days there are a plethora of job opportunities available for BAMS graduates in both public as well as private sectors. Some of the industries which students can look forward to making a career after clearing BAMS are:
|Relevant Industries for BAMS Graduates|
|Healthcare industry||Pharmaceutical industry|
|Education industry||Nursing industry|
|Life Science industry||Medical Tourism industry|
- Physician: Before students start with their own clinical practice, it is always advised to work under some senior practitioners to gain relevant experience. Along with regular practice under a practitioner, students can also opt for specialised practice (such as treatment for spinal disorders, skin diseases, etc) after gaining complete knowledge.
- Teacher: If a student wishes to build his/her career in the field of teaching, it becomes necessary to complete post-graduation. For post-graduation, students can choose to pursue either MD or postgraduate diplomas in any subject of their choice. Once students have their post-graduation degree, they can join any government or private college as a lecturer.
- Manager: Students who wish to enter into the field of management can pursue courses such as Masters in Public Health (MPH), Masters in Health Administration (MHA), and MBA in Hospital and Healthcare Management. Such courses are in great demand and offer promising employment opportunities for students.
- Clinical Research Associate: These days many universities are coming up with different postgraduate courses in clinical research. Students can pursue such courses to secure a job as a Clinical Research Associate in the research units of different pharmaceutical companies.
- Drug Manufacturer: Manufacturing of Ayurveda medicines and related products such as cosmetics is a booming business these days. To make a career in the field, students can choose to pursue courses such as MSc in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Diploma in Herbal Medicinal Manufacturing after the completion of BAMS course.
- Health Supervisor/ Therapist: These days many international tourists look towards taking natural Ayurveda treatments in health resorts and spa centres across India. Tourists usually prefer natural therapies for problems like arthritis, obesity, migraine, premature aging, skin diseases, high cholesterol, and diabetes. BAMS students can opt to work as supervisors in such health centres of various hotels and resorts. Students can also open their own health centre.
- Medical Supervisor: This option includes working as a medical supervisor in companies that prepare Ayurveda medicines.
Eligibility Criteria for Bachelor of Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery (BHMS)The minimum eligibility for pursuing BHMS is X and XII qualifications from an approved educational board withBiology/Chemistry/Physics/English as the major subjects studied in class XII, with an aggregate score of at least 50 per cent. The minimum age limit prescribed is 17 years.
Required Skillset for Bachelor of Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery (BHMS)Homeopathy doctors require a unique set of skills to best serve their patients; some of which are inherent, and others which can be learned. Everyday duties will necessitate distinct skills, and by perfecting and refining these skills they can make themselves more competitive and their work will be much more attainable and enjoyable. The vital skills necessary for pursuing BHMS are as mentioned below
- Interest in promoting natural health and being proficient in homeopathic remedies
- Ability to explain complex ideas easily, and using logic/reasoning to identify the strengths/weaknesses of alternative solutions
- Ability to prioritise work and manage workload including the ability to work under pressure
- Building and developing excellent relationships with patients
- Emotional resilience and initiative and willingness to work in a pressured environment and challenging/stressful situations
- Enthusiastically looking for ways to help others and a compassionate/caring approach to other people’s feelings
- Giving full attention to what others are conveying, taking time in understanding the points stated, asking queries as apt, and avoiding untimely interruption
- Strong verbal and listening skills, an open mind and willingness to learn
- The ability to work efficiently as part of a multidisciplinary healthcare team
Course Duration and Admission Criteria for Pursuing Bachelor of Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery (BHMS)BHMS is an undergraduate academic degree course which covers medical knowledge of the homeopathic system. The duration of the course is 5.5 years which includes 4.5 years of study followed by 1 year of internship. Each student must undergo a compulsory rotating internship of one year, after passing the final BHMS examination. Thereafter only, the student shall be eligible for the award of the degree of BHMS by the respective college/university/institute. Admission to BHMS course is done through the entrance exam. Candidates need to go through different entrance exams conducted at the state-level and national-level. Some of the entrance exams conducted for admissions to BHMS are:
- National Eligibility Cum Entrance Test (NEET)
- Bharati Vidyapeeth Common Entrance Test (BVP CET)
- Engineering, Agricultural, and Medical Common Entrance Test (Telangana and Andhra Pradesh) (EAMCET)
- Indraprastha University Common Entrance Test (IPU CET)
- Kerala Engineering, Agriculture and Medical (KEAM) and
- Punjab University Common Entrance Test (PUCET)
Course Curriculum for Bachelor of Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery (BHMS)BHMS course comprises theoretical and practical knowledge of the homeopathic medication system. The course curriculum cover topics such as Human Anatomy, Physiology, Biochemistry, Community Medicine, among others. The course includes a compendium of pre-clinical and clinical subjects.
Structure of a Bachelor of Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery (BHMS) ProgramThe academic program of BHMS is divided into four parts. The first part is 1.5 years long, and the 2nd, 3rd and 4th parts are a year-long each. Adequate prominence is given to the theoretical part of learning along with hands-on practical sessions. While the crux of the syllabus is followed in most colleges/institutes/universities across the country, minor deviations from the regulated curriculum are observed in a few colleges/institutes/universities.
Syllabus of Bachelor of Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery (BHMS)
Specialisations in Bachelor of Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery (BHMS)
- Homeopathic Pharmacy
- Homeopathic Paediatrics
- Homeopathic Psychiatry
- Homeopathic Skin Specialist
- Homeopathic Infertility Specialist
Post-Graduate Courses after Bachelor of Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery (BHMS)Candidates can either work or opt for higher studies in homeopathy and the allied areas. Given below is a list of specialisations in which post-graduation can be done after completing BHMS
|M.D (Hom) Materia Medica||M.Sc Clinical Research|
|M.D (Hom) Organon of Medicine and Philosophy||M.Sc Human Genome|
|M.D (Hom) Practice of Medicine||M.Sc Applied Psychology|
|M.D (Hom) Case Taking and Repertorisation||M.Sc Medical Biochemistry|
|M.D (Hom) Psychiatry||M.Sc Health Sciences and Yoga Therapy|
|M.D (Hom) Paediatrics||PGDM Holistic Health Care|
|M.D (Hom) Pharmacy||PGDM Acupuncture|
|M.Sc Epidemiology||PGDM Preventive and Promotive Health Care|
|M.Sc Medical Biochemistry||PGDM Diabetes Mellitus|
|M.Sc Medical Anatomy||PGDM Clinical Diabetology|
|M.Sc Neuroscience||MHA (Master of Hospital Administration)|
|M.Sc Genetics||MBA (Healthcare Management)|
|M.Sc Food and Nutrition||MPH (Master of Public Health)|
Job Profile and Average SalariesOver the years, the efficacy of homeopathic medicines has grown manifold; mainly due to the on-going research in this field. This has also led to a surge in the career opportunities it offers to students. There are bright job prospects in this field in India as well as overseas as these days people are looking for medical care which does not have side-effects
|Job Type||Job Description||Average Annual Salary in INR (Freshers)||Average Annual Salary in INR (Experienced)|
|Homeopathic Doctor||Conducting medical tests, running diagnosis, treating patients and prescribing medicines.||7-8 lakhs||10-50 lakhs|
|Public Health Specialist||Analysing and developing programs to enhance the health of people.||4 lakhs||5-15 lakhs|
|Private Practitioner||Providing private services to their patients concerned with health, psychological issues, and other problems||8-10 lakhs||15-60 lakhs|
|Pharmacist||Owns a pharmacy and interprets the doctor’s prescription, and also identifies therapeutic incompatibilities.||1-1.5 lakhs||3-6 lakhs|
|Teacher/Lecturer||Teach courses in their subject area, prepare and deliver lectures and lead classroom discussions, assess students and grade them, arrange for outdoor medical camps.||2 lakhs||4 lakhs|
Employment Areas/Recruiters for BHMS
- Clinics/Nursing Homes/Hospitals (Private/Government)
- Medical Colleges/Research Institutes/Training Institutes
- Homeopathic Medicine Stores/Pharmacies
- Charitable Institutions/NGOs/Healthcare Community
- Life Science and Pharmaceutical Industries
Listed below are some of the major highlights of the course.
|Examination Type||Professional system|
|Eligibility||10+2 with science subjects|
|Admission Process||Based on counselling after clearing Entrance Tests testfor different colleges.|
|Course Fee||INR 50,000 to 6.3 Lacs for three years|
|Average Starting Salary||Rs. 2 to Rs. 10 lacs per annum|
|Top Recruiting Companies||Unani Medical colleges, Unani Charitable institutions, Unani Clinic, Unani medicine store, Unani and ayurvedic Research institutes, Unani Consultancies, Unani medicine system education Training institutes, Life science industries, Healthcare community, Unani Pharmaceutical industries like Hamdard, Unani Government hospitals, Unani private hospital, Nursing home in Unani care, Unani dispensaries, etc.|
|Job Positions||Hakeem, Consultant, Lecturer, Scientist, Therapist, Private practice ,Pharmacist, Medical assistant, Public health specialist, Spa director, etc.|
Bachelor of Unani Medicine & Surgery: What is it about? In this professional course the students are taught about Regimental therapy (llaj -bit- Tadbeer), Venesection, Cupping, Diaphoresis, Diuresis, Turkish bath, Massage, Cauterization, Purging, Emesis, Exercise, Leeching, Pharmacotherapy (llaj-bit-Dawa), Dietotherapy (llaj-bit-Ghiza), Surgery (Jarahat), etc.BUMS (Bachelor of Unani Medicine and Surgery), like all alternative medical undergraduate programs that fall into the AYUSH category – Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy, is monitored by the Central Council of Indian Medicine.
Eligibility criteria for MDMD is one of the most sought after courses that requires rigorous study and training of many years. After completing MBBS and an internship from a recognised medical college the candidates can pursue M.D. It is a specialized course of 3 years duration. However, to seek admission in this coveted course, the candidate would require to sit for NEET PG, the national level entrance test. Some renowned medical colleges like AIIMS, JIPMER, and Medical Colleges under Delhi University conduct their own entrance tests. To secure a berth in AIIMS (All India Institute of Medical Sciences), the candidate would have to clear AIIMS PG. Similarly, to get into JIPMER (Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research), they need to qualify JIPMER PG or DUMET for Medical Colleges under Delhi University. However, in all the medical institutions, admission is granted on the basis of merit. Some institutions may take an interview of the candidate before granting final admission. The area of MD specializations are as follows:
- MD in Cardiology
- MD in Clinical Haematology
- MD in Clinical Pharmacology
- MD in Endocrinology
- MD in Gastroenterology
- MD in Medical Gastroenterology
- MD in Medical Oncology
- MD in Neonatology
- MD in Neurology
- MD in Neurology
- MD in Neuro-Radiology
- MD in Pulmonary Medicine
- MD in Rheumatology
Skills required to be an MDIn-depth theoretical knowledge and practical experience in the field are the foremost factors to work successfully as an MD The job of an MD demands responsibility, sincerity, self-confidence and distinct skills and only by perfecting and honing those skills in everyday work, one can establish oneself as a successful medical practitioner. The vital skills required to be a successful MD are listed below: To pass the MD Examination, a candidate must secure 50% marks in each subject. If he fails to secure the minimum qualifying marks in any of the subjects, he would have to re-take the test.
Job and Career Opportunities for MDThere are ample job opportunities for MD. Such doctors possess clinical expertise and they are always in demand. After the completion of MD, they may begin working in different Government hospitals as well as private hospitals and nursing homes. They may also get into work in the Bio-medical companies. Those who take an interest in teaching can join the medical colleges as lecturers and thesis guide. They may also get involved in research work and publications and authoring chapters for medical textbooks. Here is a list of areas where MD doctors can work:
- Government hospitals
- Private Super Speciality Hospitals
- Nursing Homes
- Health Centres
- Medical Colleges
- Bio-medical Companies
- Research Institutes
- Medical Foundation and trust
- Pharmaceuticals and Bio-technology companies
- Poly Clinics
- Non-profit Organizations etc.
Average salary of an MDAfter years of hard toil, relentless efforts and a rigorous schedule, an MD doctor starts reaping benefits when he begins to practice. No doubt, the earning depends upon his/her experience, dedication and devotion to the job, but the pay package is always lucrative. In government hospitals, the pay scale of an MD doctor is decided by the health department. In private hospitals, the respective governing body determines the salary of the doctor. In determining the pay package, they obviously consider his qualifications, experience, skills and service record. An MD doctor can earn more if he starts a private practice. However, the working area or the location is also a determinant factor in this regard. On average, an MD doctor earns Rs 20 lakhs per annum in a government hospital and Rs. 6 lakhs – Rs 10 lakhs in private hospitals.
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