Ph.D & Research


About course

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Manjor streme

MPhil or Master of Philosophy is a postgraduate academic research programme that is of two years duration. Candidates from any stream – HumanitiesCommerceScienceLawTeaching etc. can pursue an MPhil course. In an MPhil course, aspirants need to study theory as well as practical subjects. Apart from this, candidates also need to conduct research and present their research findings. After completing MPhil course candidates can consider pursuing a PhD programme. Aspirants who are interested in pursuing an MPhil course, need to first meet the eligibility criteria set. The criteria may vary under different universities, however, the basic eligibility set is that candidates need to have secured at least 55% marks in the subject in which they want to pursue an MPhil degree at the postgraduate level. Candidates are usually shortlisted for admission in an MPhil course on the basis of their performance in an entrance exam followed by a Personal Interview (PI) round. Some popular MPhil programmes that candidates can pursue in different streams are listed below:

Popular MPhil Courses in Humanities
MPhil History MPhil Economics MPhil Linguistics
MPhil English MPhil in Geography MPhil in Sociology
MPhil in Political Science MPhil Hindi MPhil Public Administration
MPhil in Humanities & Social Science MPhil in Human Development Studies MPhil Social Work
MPhil in Applied and Regional Economics MPhil + PhD in Arts
Popular MPhil Courses in Science
MPhil in Biology MPhil in Chemistry MPhil Physics
MPhil in Life Sciences MPhil Biotechnology MPhil Botany
MPhil in Computer Science MPhil in Zoology MPhil in Clinical Psychology
MPhil in Mathematical Sciences MPhil Degree in Aquatic Biology and Fisheries
Popular MPhil Courses in Commerce
MPhil Commerce
Popular MPhil Courses in Law
MPhil in Law
Popular MPhil Courses in Teaching & Education
MPhil in Education MPhil (Physical Education)

MPhil Scope

With a Master of Philosophy degree in the subject you have specialized in, candidates have plenty of options, be it nationally or international as well. The research work done in the programme can allow a candidate to further go and pursue a doctorate (PhD) in the respective subject or course. Candidates can begin to look out for jobs in various organizations and educational institutions linked to area of work you have done your specialization in.

MPhil related FAQs

  1. Is it compulsory to complete MPhil to pursue a PhD?
  2. As per UGC guidelines, it is not mandatory for a candidate to pursue an MPhil in order to apply for a doctoral degree. However, if a candidate has done their MPhil degree, it adds more value when it comes to pursuing a doctorate course. Candidates are offered direct admission in some universities if they have completed their MPhil and in some universities, the candidate does not have to do the PhD coursework again.
  3. What is the difference between MPhil and PhD?
  4. MPhil is ‘Master of Philosophy’ and PhD means ‘Doctor of Philosophy’. Both the degrees are based on research and course work but a PhD has a higher edge over MPhil. Through a PhD, a candidate can teach in universities and the education line as well. Through an MPhil, only candidates can get into research work at organizations.
  5. Can I do MPhil in Social Work?
  6. Yes. Many universities offer MPhil in Social Work. However, for admission, universities conduct entrance exams and personal interviews.
  7. What’s the difference between a master’s degree and MPhil?
  8. The difference between a master’s degree in any course and an MPhil is that the latter requires intensive research work. However, a candidate can only pursue an MPhil degree of they have completed their masters’. A candidate who has done their under graduation can apply for a Master’s course but not for MPhil.
  9. How difficult is the coursework in MPhil?
  10. The coursework in MPhil requires plenty of research work, time and dedication. Also, if you have taken a course which you have a genuine interest in and want to go the distance, you will then find the coursework interesting to do.
PhD is a doctoral degree with an academic focus. A PhD course is usually of three years duration and candidates need to complete the course within a maximum time span of five to six years. However, the course duration may vary from one institute to the other. Aspirants need to possess a master’s degree to be eligible to pursue a PhD programme. Candidates can pursue a PhD programme in any stream. In a PhD course aspirants need to select a topic or a subject and do in-depth research on it and answer any queries related to the topic/ subject. Earlier, candidates could pursue PhD course through the distance mode, however, as per a circular issued by UGC in 2017 it has been informed that a PhD course pursued through the distance education mode would no longer be recognised. Candidates who have cleared entrance exams like UGC NETGATEJEST and the likes are usually offered fellowships while pursuing a PhD course. Apart from this, universities such as IGNOU and Delhi University (DU) also offer fellowships to students pursuing full time PhD courses with them. Some popular PhD programmes that candidates can pursue in different streams are listed below:

Popular PhD courses in Humanities

PhD in Humanities PhD Economics PhD Geography
PhD in Social Work PhD in English PhD in Social Sciences
PhD in Public and Economic Policy PhD in Humanities & Social Sciences PhD in Humanities and Life Sciences
PhD in Psychology PhD in Arts PhD in International Relations and Politics
PhD in Physiology PhD in Public Policy PhD in Literature

Popular PhD Courses in Science

PhD in Chemistry PhD in Clinical Research PhD in Science
PhD in Bioscience PhD in Bioinformatics PhD Biotechnology
PhD in Mathematical and Computational Sciences PhD in Environmental Science and Engineering PhD in Applied Chemistry & Polymer Technology
PhD in Applied Sciences PhD Zoology PhD in Physics
PhD in Basic and Applied Sciences Phd in Mathematics PhD in Zoology

Popular PhD Courses in Commerce

PhD in Commerce Management PhD in Accounting and Financial Management

Popular PhD Courses in Engineering

PhD in Engineering PhD in Genetic Engineering PhD in Civil Engineering
PhD Program in Quantitative Techniques PhD in Engineering and Technology PhD Electronics & Communication Engineering
PhD Computer Science Engineering PhD in Electronics and Communication Engineering PhD in Aeronautical and Automobile Engineering
PhD in Information Technology PhD in Ceramic Engineering PhD in Production Engineering
PhD in Marine Biotechnology PhD in Chemical Engineering PhD in Mechanical Engineering

Popular PhD Courses in Business & Management

PhD Business Administration PhD in Management PhD in Aviation Management
PhD in Logistics and Supply Chain Management PhD in Accounting and Financial Management PhD in Marketing/ Brand Management
PhD in Commerce PhD in Commerce and Management

Popular PhD Courses in Law

PhD in Law PhD in Constitutional Law PhD in Law and Governance
PhD in Legal Studies

Popular PhD Courses in Teaching & Education

PhD in Education PhD in Teaching

Required Skillset for PhD

Any aspirant who wants to pursue a PhD in the subject/ field of their choice needs to have a lot of interest and passion for the topic at hand. A PhD requires aspirants to study a topic in-depth and so candidates need to possess the required skill-set and dedication along with being extremely hard working when pursuing a PhD. Apart from these skills, candidates should be good with performing research and collaborating the findings of research conducted by them. A PhD also requires aspirants to be quick and good with presenting their thoughts and findings and so it is a requirement that candidates be well-versed with written communication and have good writing capacity. Some key skills that an aspirant should possess while pursuing a PhD are listed below:

Inquisitive Good at research
Dedicated Hard-working
Good writing capacity Organised
Self-motivated Keen observer

PhD Eligibility Criteria

Aspirants are eligible to pursue a PhD course only if they have completed their master’s degree in a similar course/ field/ stream in which they want to pursue a PhD. Some colleges also specify that candidates need to have completed an MPhil to pursue a PhD course offered by them. Apart from this, many colleges state that candidates meet the eligibility criteria for PhD programmes offered by them if they have cleared UGC NET. Candidates who want to pursue a PhD in Engineering need to possess a valid GATE score. There are various categories of PhD candidates. Some of the types of PhD candidates are listed below:

Full Time Research Scholars

Government/ Semi Government Fellowship Recipients

PhD scholars who fall under this category are offered financial assistance under Government/ Semi Government fellowship schemes.

Institute research Scholars with Teaching Assistance

Aspirants falling under this category of PhD scholars are offered Institute Teaching Assistantship as specified by the MHRD.

Self-financed Candidates (Indian/ Foreign)

Indian self-financed candidates are offered a seat in doctoral programmes offered at institutes depending on their track record and experience. Such candidates are offered admission in PhD programmes offered by the institute by taking part in the normal admission process for PhD courses but such candidates do not receive any financial assistance from the institute. Foreign self-financed candidates are offered admission through the embassy of their respective country only after they get the necessary ‘no objection certificate’ from MHRD, Govt of India and other necessary approvals from India’s Ministry of External Affairs.

Sponsored Candidates

Aspirants falling under this category of PhD scholars are sponsored by (recognised) Research and Development organisations to do full time research at the concerned institute.

Study Leave Candidates

Aspirants falling under this category are given study leave by Government institutes/ companies/ educational institutes for a time duration of less than three years to perform research work at the specified institute. A letter of leave provided by the candidate’s institute/ company is necessary to secure admission as a PhD scholar in this category.

ICCR Awardees

Foreign candidates who are sponsored by their respective government are awarded a seat in a PhD course under Indian Council of Cultural Relations (ICCR) award holders’ category if they have been awarded the scholarship by their government.

Part Time Research Scholars

Candidates who seek admission under part time research scholars at an institute are offered admission under the below mentioned categories:
  • Research Assistants
  • Institute staff/ Faculty
  • Project Staff
  • External Sponsored Candidates

PhD Admission Process

In order to secure admission in PhD or research programmes offered by the educational institute, aspirants need to go through the below mentioned steps:
Step 1: Visit the official website of the educational institute and go through all the details of the PhD courses offered by the institute and select the area of research that the candidate wants to pursue.
Step 2: Candidates need to keep an eye out for any admission advertisement in newspapers or visit the official website of the university to fill the application form for admission in the course of their choice. Usually the admission notification is released 4-5 months before the commencement of the course cycle.
Step 3: Next, candidates need to fill and submit their application forms for the PhD course as per the schedule shared by the educational institute. Aspirants also need to ensure that they pay the application fee on time and submit all the required documents along with their application form for PhD admissions.
Step 4: Some educational institutes also specify that candidates need to submit a research proposal along with their application form. The application form along with the research proposal is submitted at the Research Unit of the educational institute where scrutiny of the application is conducted.
Step 5: After scrutiny of the PhD course application form is complete then most of the educational institutes shortlist the names of the candidates who need to appear for the entrance exam and other admission rounds that are conducted for shortlisting aspirants for admission in PhD programmes offered by them.
Step 6: Candidates who are selected for PhD programmes on the basis of the admission rounds are then assigned supervisors/ guides for their PhD research.

PhD Course Structure

Steps that candidates need to follow when pursuing a PhD course in order to be conferred a PhD degree are listed below:
  1. Once candidates are selected for PhD courses offered at educational institutes they need to submit their Research Proposal along with their Research Topic.
  2. Then, candidates are allocated a research supervisor/ guide.
  3. After this candidates are provided details of the Course Work, evaluation methodology and the teaching schedule by the Research Programme Coordinator/ Guide/ Supervisor.
  4. While performing research work most educational institutes require aspirants to submit six month progress reports for their research work.
  5. Further, as a Research Student one needs to give at least two seminar presentations as part of their tenure as a Research Scholar and thereafter submit a Certificate in the prescribed format to the Research Unit.
  6. Next, PhD students need to publish at least one research paper in a peer reviewed/refereed Journal and also submit a Certificate in the prescribed format to the Research Unit before they submit their PhD thesis.
  7. Before aspirants submit their thesis, their supervisor or guide will organise a Pre-submission Seminar. This seminar will be open to all. As part of this seminar a report will be submitted which will include suggestions for improvement and the supervisor would ensure that candidates incorporate all these suggestions in the final thesis.
  8. Candidates then need to incorporate all the changes and submit a summary of their thesis to their supervisor or guide at least 45 days before the submission of the thesis.
  9. Finally, candidates need to submit their thesis in hard copy as well as soft copy. This thesis will be examined by external experts. In case any expert suggests any modifications in the research paper submitted by the candidate then he/ she needs to re-submit a modified thesis.
  10. Next, a viva-voce is conducted wherein candidates can openly defend their thesis and present their point of view before a panel of experts.
  11. Candidates who complete all these steps to perfection would only be conferred a PhD degree.


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